April 28, 2018
Friday’s summit between the leaders of North and South Korea was a “historic meeting” paving the way for the start of a new era, North Korea’s media say.
The North’s Kim Jong-un and Moon Jae-in of South Korea agreed to work to rid the peninsula of nuclear weapons.
The official KCNA news agency hailed this as a “new milestone” in the path to joint prosperity. It also carried the full text of the declaration.
China and the United States both welcomed the news.
However, US President Donald Trump said he would continue to exert maximum pressure on North Korea, as he prepares to meet Mr Kim in the coming weeks.
After the talks at the border, Mr Kim and Mr Moon also agreed to push towards turning the armistice that ended the Korean War in 1953 into a peace treaty this year.
The summit came just months after warlike rhetoric from North Korea.
Historic summit as it happened
Five key moments from the meeting
Read the Korean declaration in full
What is in the agreement?
Details of how denuclearisation would be achieved were not made clear, and many analysts remain sceptical about the North’s apparent enthusiasm for engagement.
An issue for the North is the security guarantee extended by the US, a nuclear power, to South Korea and Japan and its military presence in both countries.
Will historic Koreas summit lead to peace?
Previous inter-Korean agreements have included similar pledges but were later abandoned after the North resorted to nuclear and missile tests and the South elected more conservative presidents.
Mr Kim said the two leaders had agreed to work to prevent a repeat of the region’s “unfortunate history” in which progress had “fizzled out”.
“There may be backlash, hardship and frustration,” he said, adding: “A victory cannot be achieved without pain.”
Other points the leaders agreed on in a joint statement were:
1.An end to “hostile activities” between the two nations
2.Changing the demilitarised zone (DMZ) that divides the country into a “peace zone” by ceasing propaganda broadcasts
3.An arms reduction in the region pending the easing of military tension
4.To push for four-way talks involving the US and China
5.Organising a reunion of families left divided by the war
6.Connecting and modernising railways and roads across the border
7.Further joint participation in sporting events, including this year’s Asian Games
The commitment to denuclearisation does not explicitly refer to North Korea halting its nuclear activities but rather to the aim of “a nuclear-free Korean peninsula”.
Why has Kim halted nuclear tests now?
Profile: Kim Jong-un
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What did China and the US say?
China later praised the political determination and courage of both leaders and said it hoped the momentum could be maintained.
President also welcomed the news, tweeting that “good things are happening”.
Speaking in Washington, Mr Trump said his expected meeting with Mr Kim would take place in one of two countries under consideration and vowed he would not be “played” by the North Korean leader.
“We will come up with a solution and if we don’t we’ll leave the room,” he said.
New US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo – who earlier this month travelled secretly to Pyongyang to meet Mr Kim – said his impression was that Mr Kim was serious about reaching a deal.
“The economic pressure put in place by this global effort that President Trump has led has led him to believe that it’s in his best interest to come to the table and talk about denuclearisation,” he said.
How did Friday’s summit unfold?
The leaders were met by an honour guard in traditional costume on the South Korean side. The pair walked to the Peace House in Panmunjom, a military compound in the DMZ.
Mr Kim then invited the South Korean president to step briefly across the demarcation line into North Korea, before the pair stepped back into South Korea – all the while holding hands.
It was an apparently unscripted moment during a highly choreographed sequence of events.
The two leaders spoke together during a session broadcast live on South Korean TV.
Mr Kim jokingly apologised to Mr Moon for repeatedly forcing him to get up early because of the North’s missile and nuclear tests.
“I heard you [President Moon] had your early morning sleep disturbed many times to attend National Security Council meetings,” he said. “I will make sure that your morning sleep won’t be disturbed.”
“Now I can sleep in peace,” Mr Moon replied.
Mr Kim also acknowledged that the North’s infrastructure lagged behind that of the South.
“I’m worried that our transport situation is bad so it may discomfort you, it may be embarrassing [for me] if you visit North Korea after living in the South’s environment,” he said.
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After separating for lunch, the two leaders took part in a tree-planting ceremony using soil and water from both countries.
They later attended a banquet.
Mr Kim was accompanied for the symbolic discussions by nine officials, including his powerful sister, Kim Yo-jong.
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How did we get here?
Few had predicted a development like this, as North Korea continued its nuclear and missile tests and stepped up its rhetoric through 2016 and 2017.
The rapprochement began in January when Mr Kim suggested he was “open to dialogue” with South Korea.
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The following month the two countries marched under one flag at the opening ceremony of the Winter Olympics, held in the South.
Mr Kim announced last week that he was suspending nuclear tests.
Chinese researchers have indicated that North Korea’s nuclear test site may be unusable after a rock collapse.