September 22, 2018
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE: 4502) announced that the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has adopted a positive opinion, recommending the full approval of ALUNBRIG® (brigatinib) as a monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with crizotinib. ALUNBRIG is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) designed to target and inhibit the ALK mutation in NSCLC. Approximately three to five percent of NSCLC patients globally have the ALK mutation. If the CHMP opinion is affirmed, and the European Commission approves ALUNBRIG, it will become the only ALK inhibitor available in the European Union as a one tablet per day dose that can be taken with or without food.
The randomized, global Phase 2 ALTA trial was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of ALUNBRIG in patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK+ NSCLC who had progressed on crizotinib. Patients were randomized to receive one of two regimens of ALUNBRIG: 90 mg of ALUNBRIG once daily (n=112) or 180 mg once daily with seven-day lead-in at 90 mg once daily (n=110).
“ALK+ NSCLC is a serious and life-threatening disease that affects approximately 40,000 people worldwide every year, and many patients will progress on or stop responding to first-line treatment,” said Stefania Vallone, President, Lung Cancer Europe. “For European people with ALK+ NSCLC, there remains a significant unmet need for new and effective treatment options.”
“While ALK inhibitors have demonstrated tremendous growth in this treatment space over the past decade, having an additional targeted therapy option available for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC has been eagerly anticipated,” said Enriqueta Felip, M.D., PhD, Head of the Thoracic Oncology Unit, Oncology Department at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona. “With a median progression-free survival of 16.7 months and overall survival of 34.1 months, ALUNBRIG has shown impressive results, representing new progress for ALK+ NSCLC treatment in this setting.”
“The ALTA trial has established ALUNBRIG as a potential second-line treatment option for ALK+ NSCLC, by demonstrating significant efficacy with a manageable safety profile,” said Jesús Gómez-Navarro, M.D., Vice President, Head of Oncology Clinical Research and Development, Takeda. “With 16.7 months median progression-free survival, the longest of any ALK inhibitor to be reported in this setting, ALUNBRIG offers great potential for patients who progressed on crizotinib. Today’s positive opinion brings us closer toward the ultimate goal of advancing the treatment paradigm for the considerable number of crizotinib-treated ALK+ NSCLC patients living in Europe. We look forward to the European Commission’s review of the CHMP positive opinion and introducing ALUNBRIG to patients and healthcare professionals in the European Union if approved.”
As part of this submission, the CHMP also reviewed data from the first interim analysis of the Phase 3 ALTA-1L trial, which met its primary endpoint, as supportive evidence. In ALTA-1L, treatment with ALUNBRIG resulted in a statistically and clinically significant improvement in PFS versus crizotinib as assessed by a blinded independent review committee. The safety profile associated with ALUNBRIG was generally consistent with prior studies and approved U.S. and Canadian labeling.
The CHMP positive opinion for ALUNBRIG will now be reviewed by the European Commission, which has the authority to approve medicines for use in the 28 member states of the European Union, as well as Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland.
About the ALTA Trial
The Phase 2 ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113) trial of ALUNBRIG in adults is a global, ongoing, two-arm, open-label, multicenter trial, which enrolled 222 patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK+ NSCLC who had progressed on crizotinib. Patients received either 90 mg of ALUNBRIG once daily (n=112) or 180 mg once daily with seven-day lead-in at 90 mg once daily regimen (n=110). Investigator-assessed confirmed objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST v1.1 was the primary endpoint. Key additional endpoints included Independent Review Committee (IRC)-assessed ORR, duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), intracranial ORR, intracranial DOR, safety and tolerability.
Results of the ALTA trial demonstrated that of the patients who received the 180 mg dosing regimen, 56 percent achieved an ORR as assessed by investigator and 56 percent as assessed by IRC. The median DOR was 13.8 months as assessed by investigator and 15.7 months by IRC assessment. Median PFS was 15.6 months as assessed by investigator and 16.7 months by IRC assessment. Additionally, of the patients with measurable brain metastases at baseline (n=18), 67 percent achieved an intracranial ORR by IRC assessment; median duration of intracranial response was 16.6 months by IRC assessment. Median overall survival was 34.1 months as assessed by investigator.
The most common adverse reactions (≥25%) reported in patients treated with ALUNBRIG at the 180 mg dosing regimen were increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, anemia, increased creatine phosphokinase (CPK), nausea, increased lipase, decreased lymphocyte count, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), diarrhea, increased amylase, fatigue, cough, headache, increased alkaline phosphatase, hypophosphatemia, increased abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), rash, vomiting, dyspnea, hypertension, decreased blood cell count, myalgia, and peripheral neuropathy.
About the ALTA-1L Trial
The Phase 3 ALTA-1L (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of BrigAtinib in 1st Line) trial of ALUNBRIG in adults is a global, ongoing, randomized, open-label, comparative, multicenter trial, which enrolled 275 patients with ALK+ locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who have not received prior treatment with an ALK inhibitor. Patients received either ALUNBRIG, 180 mg once daily with seven-day lead-in at 90 mg once daily, or crizotinib, 250 mg twice daily. Independent Review Committee (IRC)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) per RECIST v1.1, intracranial ORR, intracranial PFS, overall survival (OS), safety and tolerability. A total of approximately 198 PFS events are planned at the final analysis of the primary endpoint in order to demonstrate a minimum of six months PFS improvement over crizotinib. The trial is designed with two pre-specified interim analyses for the primary endpoint – one at approximately 50 percent of planned PFS events and one at approximately 75 percent of planned PFS events.
About ALK+ NSCLC
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85 percent of the estimated 1.8 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed each year worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Genetic studies indicate that chromosomal rearrangements in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are key drivers in a subset of NSCLC patients. Approximately three to five percent of patients with metastatic NSCLC have a rearrangement in the ALK gene.
Takeda is committed to continuing research and development in NSCLC to improve the lives of the approximately 40,000 patients diagnosed with this serious and rare form of lung cancer worldwide each year.
About ALUNBRIG® (brigatinib)
ALUNBRIG is a targeted cancer medicine discovered by ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc., which was acquired by Takeda in February 2017. In April 2017, ALUNBRIG received Accelerated Approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ALK+ metastatic NSCLC patients who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. This indication is approved under Accelerated Approval based on tumor response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial. In July 2018, Health Canada approved ALUNBRIG for the treatment of adult patients with ALK+ metastatic NSCLC who have progressed on or who were intolerant to an ALK inhibitor (crizotinib). The FDA and Health Canada approvals of ALUNBRIG were primarily based on results from the pivotal Phase 2 ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113) trial.
ALUNBRIG received Breakthrough Therapy Designation from the FDA for the treatment of patients with ALK+ NSCLC whose tumors are resistant to crizotinib and was granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA for the treatment of ALK+ NSCLC, ROS1+ and EGFR+ NSCLC.
The brigatinib clinical development program further reinforces Takeda’s ongoing commitment to developing innovative therapies for people living with ALK+ NSCLC worldwide and the healthcare professionals who treat them. The comprehensive program includes the following clinical trials:
For additional information on the brigatinib clinical trials, please visit www.clinicaltrials.gov.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION (U.S.)
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)/Pneumonitis: Severe, life-threatening, and fatal pulmonary adverse reactions consistent with interstitial lung disease (ILD)/pneumonitis have occurred with ALUNBRIG. In Trial ALTA (ALTA), ILD/pneumonitis occurred in 3.7% of patients in the 90 mg group (90 mg once daily) and 9.1% of patients in the 90→180 mg group (180 mg once daily with 7-day lead-in at 90 mg once daily). Adverse reactions consistent with possible ILD/pneumonitis occurred early (within 9 days of initiation of ALUNBRIG; median onset was 2 days) in 6.4% of patients, with Grade 3 to 4 reactions occurring in 2.7%. Monitor for new or worsening respiratory symptoms (e.g., dyspnea, cough, etc.), particularly during the first week of initiating ALUNBRIG. Withhold ALUNBRIG in any patient with new or worsening respiratory symptoms, and promptly evaluate for ILD/pneumonitis or other causes of respiratory symptoms (e.g., pulmonary embolism, tumor progression, and infectious pneumonia). For Grade 1 or 2 ILD/pneumonitis, either resume ALUNBRIG with dose reduction after recovery to baseline or permanently discontinue ALUNBRIG. Permanently discontinue ALUNBRIG for Grade 3 or 4 ILD/pneumonitis or recurrence of Grade 1 or 2 ILD/pneumonitis.
Hypertension: In ALTA, hypertension was reported in 11% of patients in the 90 mg group who received ALUNBRIG and 21% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Grade 3 hypertension occurred in 5.9% of patients overall. Control blood pressure prior to treatment with ALUNBRIG. Monitor blood pressure after 2 weeks and at least monthly thereafter during treatment with ALUNBRIG. Withhold ALUNBRIG for Grade 3 hypertension despite optimal antihypertensive therapy. Upon resolution or improvement to Grade 1 severity, resume ALUNBRIG at a reduced dose. Consider permanent discontinuation of treatment with ALUNBRIG for Grade 4 hypertension or recurrence of Grade 3 hypertension. Use caution when administering ALUNBRIG in combination with antihypertensive agents that cause bradycardia.
Bradycardia: Bradycardia can occur with ALUNBRIG. In ALTA, heart rates less than 50 beats per minute (bpm) occurred in 5.7% of patients in the 90 mg group and 7.6% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Grade 2 bradycardia occurred in 1 (0.9%) patient in the 90 mg group. Monitor heart rate and blood pressure during treatment with ALUNBRIG. Monitor patients more frequently if concomitant use of drug known to cause bradycardia cannot be avoided. For symptomatic bradycardia, withhold ALUNBRIG and review concomitant medications for those known to cause bradycardia. If a concomitant medication known to cause bradycardia is identified and discontinued or dose adjusted, resume ALUNBRIG at the same dose following resolution of symptomatic bradycardia; otherwise, reduce the dose of ALUNBRIG following resolution of symptomatic bradycardia. Discontinue ALUNBRIG for life-threatening bradycardia if no contributing concomitant medication is identified.
Visual Disturbance: In ALTA, adverse reactions leading to visual disturbance including blurred vision, diplopia, and reduced visual acuity, were reported in 7.3% of patients treated with ALUNBRIG in the 90 mg group and 10% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Grade 3 macular edema and cataract occurred in one patient each in the 90→180 mg group. Advise patients to report any visual symptoms. Withhold ALUNBRIG and obtain an ophthalmologic evaluation in patients with new or worsening visual symptoms of Grade 2 or greater severity. Upon recovery of Grade 2 or Grade 3 visual disturbances to Grade 1 severity or baseline, resume ALUNBRIG at a reduced dose. Permanently discontinue treatment with ALUNBRIG for Grade 4 visual disturbances.
Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) Elevation: In ALTA, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation occurred in 27% of patients receiving ALUNBRIG in the 90 mg group and 48% of patients in the 90 mg→180 mg group. The incidence of Grade 3-4 CPK elevation was 2.8% in the 90 mg group and 12% in the 90→180 mg group. Dose reduction for CPK elevation occurred in 1.8% of patients in the 90 mg group and 4.5% in the 90→180 mg group. Advise patients to report any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Monitor CPK levels during ALUNBRIG treatment. Withhold ALUNBRIG for Grade 3 or 4 CPK elevation. Upon resolution or recovery to Grade 1 or baseline, resume ALUNBRIG at the same dose or at a reduced dose.
Pancreatic Enzyme Elevation: In ALTA, amylase elevation occurred in 27% of patients in the 90 mg group and 39% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Lipase elevations occurred in 21% of patients in the 90 mg group and 45% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Grade 3 or 4 amylase elevation occurred in 3.7% of patients in the 90 mg group and 2.7% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Grade 3 or 4 lipase elevation occurred in 4.6% of patients in the 90 mg group and 5.5% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. Monitor lipase and amylase during treatment with ALUNBRIG. Withhold ALUNBRIG for Grade 3 or 4 pancreatic enzyme elevation. Upon resolution or recovery to Grade 1 or baseline, resume ALUNBRIG at the same dose or at a reduced dose.
Hyperglycemia: In ALTA, 43% of patients who received ALUNBRIG experienced new or worsening hyperglycemia. Grade 3 hyperglycemia, based on laboratory assessment of serum fasting glucose levels, occurred in 3.7% of patients. Two of 20 (10%) patients with diabetes or glucose intolerance at baseline required initiation of insulin while receiving ALUNBRIG. Assess fasting serum glucose prior to initiation of ALUNBRIG and monitor periodically thereafter. Initiate or optimize anti-hyperglycemic medications as needed. If adequate hyperglycemic control cannot be achieved with optimal medical management, withhold ALUNBRIG until adequate hyperglycemic control is achieved and consider reducing the dose of ALUNBRIG or permanently discontinuing ALUNBRIG.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, ALUNBRIG can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. There are no clinical data on the use of ALUNBRIG in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective non-hormonal contraception during treatment with ALUNBRIG and for at least 4 months following the final dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose of ALUNBRIG.
Serious adverse reactions occurred in 38% of patients in the 90 mg group and 40% of patients in the 90→180 mg group. The most common serious adverse reactions were pneumonia (5.5% overall, 3.7% in the 90 mg group, and 7.3% in the 90→180 mg group) and ILD/pneumonitis (4.6% overall, 1.8% in the 90 mg group and 7.3% in the 90→180 mg group). Fatal adverse reactions occurred in 3.7% of patients and consisted of pneumonia (2 patients), sudden death, dyspnea, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, bacterial meningitis and urosepsis (1 patient each).
The most common adverse reactions (≥25%) in the 90 mg group were nausea (33%), fatigue (29%), headache (28%), and dyspnea (27%) and in the 90→180 mg group were nausea (40%), diarrhea (38%), fatigue (36%), cough (34%), and headache (27%).
CYP3A Inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of ALUNBRIG with strong CYP3A inhibitors. Avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice as it may also increase plasma concentrations of brigatinib. If concomitant use of a strong CYP3A inhibitor is unavoidable, reduce the dose of ALUNBRIG.
CYP3A Inducers: Avoid concomitant use of ALUNBRIG with strong CYP3A inducers.
CYP3A Substrates: Coadministration of ALUNBRIG with CYP3A substrates, including hormonal contraceptives, can result in decreased concentrations and loss of efficacy of CYP3A substrates.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: ALUNBRIG can cause fetal harm. Advise females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus.
Lactation: There are no data regarding the secretion of brigatinib in human milk or its effects on the breastfed infant or milk production. Because of the potential adverse reactions in breastfed infants, advise lactating women not to breastfeed during treatment with ALUNBRIG.
Females and Males of Reproductive Potential:
Contraception: Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective non-hormonal contraception during treatment with ALUNBRIG and for at least 4 months after the final dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with ALUNBRIG and for at least 3 months after the final dose.
Infertility: ALUNBRIG may cause reduced fertility in males.
Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of ALUNBRIG in pediatric patients have not been established.
Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of ALUNBRIG did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Of the 222 patients in ALTA, 19.4% were 65-74 years and 4.1% were 75 years or older. No clinically relevant differences in safety or efficacy were observed between patients ≥65 and younger patients.
Hepatic or Renal Impairment: No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment or mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety of ALUNBRIG in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment or severe renal impairment has not been studied.
Please see the full U.S. Prescribing Information for ALUNBRIG at www.ALUNBRIG.com
About Takeda Pharmaceutical Company
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited is a global, research and development-driven pharmaceutical company committed to bringing better health and a brighter future to patients by translating science into life-changing medicines. Takeda focuses its R&D efforts on oncology, gastroenterology and central nervous system therapeutic areas plus vaccines. Takeda conducts R&D both internally and with partners to stay at the leading edge of innovation. New innovative products, especially in oncology and gastroenterology, as well as our presence in Emerging Markets, fuel the growth of Takeda. More than 30,000 Takeda employees are committed to improving quality of life for patients, working with our partners in health care in more than 70 countries. For more information, visit http://www.takeda.com/news.
Additional information about Takeda is available through its corporate website, www.takeda.com, and additional information about Takeda Oncology, the brand for the global oncology business unit of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, is available through its website, www.takedaoncology.com.